Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to deal with or stop a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop numerous sources for stem cells, as properly as to apply stem-cell therapies for neurodegenerative illnesses and conditions this kind of as diabetes and heart disease, between other people.
Stem-cell therapy has turn out to be controversial following developments this kind of as the capacity of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells making use of somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is frequently related to abortion politics and to human cloning. Moreover, efforts to industry therapies based mostly on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.
For above 30 years, bone marrow has been used to deal with individuals with cancer with conditions this kind of as leukaemia and lymphoma this is the only type of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced. During chemotherapy, most developing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, however, cannot discriminate amongst the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells inside the bone marrow. It is this side impact of conventional chemotherapy methods that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse a donor’s healthful bone marrow reintroduces practical stem cells to substitute the cells misplaced in the host’s body in the course of treatment. The transplanted cells also create an immune response that helps to destroy off the cancer cells this method can go also far, however, major to graft vs host disease, the most significant side impact of this treatment.
One more stem cell therapy named Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in kids who are unresponsive to steroids. It is an allogenic stem therapy based mostly on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of adult donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to ten,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until needed.
The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological illnesses.
In 2014, the European Medicines Company suggested approval of limbal stem cells for individuals with serious limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.